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Bifidobacterium longum is one of earliest probiotic to colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract.  The Bifidobacterium genus, represents up to 90% of the bacteria of an infant’s gastrointestinal tract (1). This number gradually drops to 3% in an adult’s gastrointestinal tract as other enteric bacteria such as Bacteroides and Eubacterium begin to dominate (3). It comes from the phylum of Actinobacteria.

Some strains of B. longum were found to have high tolerance for gastric acid and bile, suggesting that these strains would be able to survive the gastrointestinal tract to colonize the lower small and large intestines (5,9). This proprietary, standardized, formulation of live bacteria may be used in combination with conventional therapies to treat ulcerative colitis, and requires a prescription (12).

 

Research

  1. Garrido, D.; Ruiz-Moyano, S.; Jimenez-Espinoza, R.; Eom, H. J.; Block, D. E.; Mills, D. A. (2013). “Utilization of galactooligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Infantis isolates”. Food Microbiology. 33 (2): 262–270. doi:10.1016/j.fm.2012.10.003. PMC 3593662Freely accessible. PMID 23200660.
  2. Park, S; Ha, N; Lee, D; An, H; Cha, M; Baek, E; Kim, J; Lee, S; Lee, K (2011). “Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of bifidobacterium isolates from healthy adult Koreans”. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. 9 (3): 173–179.
  3. Yuan, J.; Zhu, L.; Liu, X.; Li, T.; Zhang, Y.; Ying, T.; Wang, B.; Wang, J.; Dong, H.; Feng, E.; Li, Q.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Wei, K.; Zhang, X.; Huang, C.; Huang, P.; Huang, L.; Zeng, M.; Wang, H. (2006). “A Proteome Reference Map and Proteomic Analysis of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705”. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 5 (6): 1105–1118. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500410-MCP200. PMID 16549425.
  4. Yazawa, K.; Fujimori, M.; Amano, J.; Kano, Y.; Taniguchi, S. I. (2000). “Bifidobacterium longum as a delivery system for cancer gene therapy: Selective localization and growth in hypoxic tumors”. Cancer Gene Therapy. 7 (2): 269–274. doi:10.1038/sj.cgt.7700122. PMID 10770636.
  5. Sakata, S.; Kitahara, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Hayashi, H.; Fukuyama, M.; Benno, Y. (2002). “Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum”. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (Pt 6): 1945–1951. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02221-0. PMID 12508852.
  6. Mattarelli, P.; Bonaparte, C.; Pot, B.; Biavati, B. (2008). “Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum subsp. Nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Infantis comb. Nov. And Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Suis comb. Nov”. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 58 (4): 767–772. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65319-0. PMID 18398167.
  7. Šrůtková, D.; Spanova, A.; Spano, M.; Dráb, V. R.; Schwarzer, M.; Kozaková, H.; Rittich, B. (2011). “Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. Longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. Infantis strains of human origin”. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 87 (1): 10–16. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2011.06.014. PMID 21756944.
  8. Xiao, J. Z.; Kondo, S.; Takahashi, N.; Miyaji, K.; Oshida, K.; Hiramatsu, A.; Iwatsuki, K.; Kokubo, S.; Hosono, A. (2003). “Effects of Milk Products Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on Blood Lipids in Rats and Healthy Adult Male Volunteers”. Journal of Dairy Science. 86 (7): 2452–2461. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73839-9. PMID 12906063.
  9. Abbad Andaloussi, S.; Talbaoui, H.; Marczak, R.; Bonaly, R. (1995). “Isolation and characterization of exocellular polysaccharides produced by Bifidobacterium longum”. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 43 (6): 995–1000. doi:10.1007/BF00166915. PMID 8590666.
  10. Parche, S.; Amon, J.; Jankovic, I.; Rezzonico, E.; Beleut, M.; Barutçu, H.; Schendel, I.; Eddy, M. P.; Burkovski, A.; Arigoni, F.; Titgemeyer, F. (2007). “Sugar Transport Systems of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705″. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology. 12 (1–2): 9–19. doi:10.1159/000096455. PMID 17183207.
  11. Tanaka, H.; Hashiba, H.; Kok, J.; Mierau, I. (2000). “Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum-biochemical and genetic characterization”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66 (6): 2502–2512. doi:10.1128/aem.66.6.2502-2512.2000. PMC 110569Freely accessible. PMID 10831430.
  12. Ghouri, Yezaz A; Richards, David M; Rahimi, Erik F; Krill, Joseph T; Jelinek, Katherine A; DuPont, Andrew W (9 December 2014). “Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in inflammatory bowel disease”. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. pp. 473–487. doi:10.2147/CEG.S27530. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  13. De Vrese, M.; Winkler, P.; Rautenberg, P.; Harder, T.; Noah, C.; Laue, C.; Ott, S.; Hampe, J.; Schreiber, S.; Heller, K.; Schrezenmeir, J. R. (2005). “Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. Bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: A double blind, randomized, controlled trial”. Clinical Nutrition. 24 (4): 481–491. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2005.02.006. PMID 16054520.

 

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