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Bacillus subtilis is a bacteria typically found in the soil as well as in our gut. Its name come from the Latin root subtilis for  subtle or fine. It can form a spore or thick wall and survive extreme environmental conditions. This gives it an advantage as a probiotic, since it can more easily survive stomach acid and digestive enzymes in the small intestine, as it makes its way to the lower gut. It comes from the genus of bacillus and the phylum of Firmicutes.

It was used in the late 1940’s and 1950’s to stimulate the immune system and to aid in the treatment of gastrointestinal and urinary tract disorders, but lost popularity after the introduction of antibiotics. It is used in the Japanese food natto and has industrial applications particularly in agriculture. It has also been extensively study by scientists as a model system for basic genetic and biological functions.

 

Research

  1. Latorre JD, Hernandez-Velasco X, Kallapura G, Menconi A, Pumford NR, Morgan MJ, Layton SL, Bielke LR, Hargis BM, Téllez G. Evaluation of germination, distribution, and persistence of Bacillus subtilis spores through the gastrointestinal tract of chickens. Poult Sci. 2014
  2. Moore T, Globa L, Pustovyy O, Vodyanoy V, Sorokulova I. Oral administration of Bacillus subtilis strain BSB3 can prevent heat stress-related adverse effects in rats. J Appl Microbiol. 2014
  3. Park JH, Kim IH. Supplemental effect of probiotic Bacillus subtilis B2A on productivity, organ weight, intestinal Salmonella microflora, and breast meat quality of growing broiler chicks. Poult Sci. 2014
  4. Jeong JS, Kim IH. Effect of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores as a probiotic feed supplement on growth performance, noxious gas emission, and intestinal microflora in broilers. Poult Sci. 2014
  5. Zhang YR, Xiong HR, Guo XH. Enhanced viability of Lactobacillus reuteri for probiotics production in mixed solid-state fermentation in the presence of Bacillus subtilis. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2014
  6. Khochamit N, Siripornadulsil S, Sukon P, Siripornadulsil W. Antibacterial activity and genotypic-phenotypic characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Bacillus subtilis KKU213: potential as a probiotic strain. Microbiol Res. 2015
  7. Azarin H, Aramli MS, Imanpour MR, Rajabpour M. Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2015
  8. Zokaeifar H, Babaei N, Saad CR, Kamarudin MS, Sijam K, Balcazar JL. Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014
  9. Liu CH, Chiu CH, Wang SW, Cheng W. Dietary administration of the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20, enhances the growth, innate immune responses, and disease resistance of the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012
  10. Cui C, Shen CJ, Jia G, Wang KN. Effect of dietary Bacillus subtilis on proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in swine intestine and lipid metabolism. Genet Mol Res. 2013
  11. Thirabunyanon M, Thongwittaya N. Protection activity of a novel probiotic strain of Bacillus subtilis against Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Res Vet Sci. 2012
  12. Rajput IR, Hussain A, Li YL, Zhang X, Xu X, Long MY, You DY, Li WF. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs mediated signaling to induce immunity by chicken BMDCs. J Cell Biochem. 2014
  13. Aliakbarpour HR, Chamani M, Rahimi G, Sadeghi AA, Qujeq D. The Bacillus subtilis and Lactic Acid Bacteria Probiotics Influences Intestinal Mucin Gene Expression, Histomorphology and Growth Performance in Broilers. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2012
  14. Permpoonpattana P, Hong HA, Khaneja R, Cutting SM. Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis strains as probiotics and their potential as a food ingredient. Benef Microbes. 2012
  15. Liu YP, Liu X, Dong L. [Lactulose plus live binary Bacillus subtilis in the treatment of elders with functional constipation]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012
  16. Iwashita MK, Nakandakare IB, Terhune JS, Wood T, Ranzani-Paiva MJ. Dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae enhance immunity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015
  17. Deng J, Li Y, Zhang J, Yang Q. Co-administration of Bacillus subtilis RJGP16 and Lactobacillus salivarius B1 strongly enhances the intestinal mucosal immunity of piglets. Res Vet Sci. 2013
  18. Larsen N, Thorsen L, Kpikpi EN, Stuer-Lauridsen B, Cantor MD, Nielsen B, Brockmann E, Derkx PM, Jespersen L. Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014